What is pharmacogenomics?

About PGx

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a person’s response to drugs. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) combines pharmacology (the science of drugs) and genomics (the study of genes and their functions) to develop effective, safe medication regimens tailored to an individual’s genetic makeup.

Genetics can predict whether a medication will be effective or help prevent adverse drug reactions.

Many drugs are dosed as “one size fits all;” but they don’t produce the same effects and outcomes for everyone. Without PGx, it can be difficult to predict: who will benefit from a medication; who will not respond at all; who will experience adverse reactions.

Pharmacogenomics facts:

  • Depending on a person’s genetic makeup, some drugs may work more or less effectively for one person versus another. Likewise, some drugs may produce more or fewer side effects in one person in comparison to another.
  • With PGx, physicians can now use information about ones genetic makeup to choose those drugs and drug doses that offer the greatest chance of therapeutic success.
  • By using information about ones genetic makeup, doctors may be able to avoid the trial-and-error approach of prescribing various drugs that are not likely to work until they find the right one.

Impacted Medications and Genes Tested

Our pharmacogenomic panels target an extensive list of potentially impacted medications and therapeutic risk factors.

Drug Class Potentially Impacted Drugs Gene(s) Tested
ADHD Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Dexmethylphendiate, Dextroamphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, Methylphendiate Clonidine, Guanfacine CYP2D6, COMT
Alzheimer’s Disease Donepezil, Galantamine Memantine  CYPD2D6
Antiarrhythmics  Donepezil, Galantamine Memantine  CYPD2D6
Anticancer Agents Methotrexate, Belinostat, Erlotinib, Gefitinib, Nilotinib, Pazopanib, Azathioprine, Mercaptopurine, Thioguanine, Irinotecan, Irinotecan Liposomal  
Antidepressants, SSRIs/SNRI Citalopram, Escitalopram, Desvenlafaxine, Duloxetine, Mirtazapine, Paroxetine,  Sertraline, Venlafaxine CYP2D6, CYP2C19
Antidepressants, Tricyclic
Amitriptyline, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Doxepin, Imipramine, Nortriptyline, Trimipramine Amoxapine, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Levomilnacipran, Maprotiline, Nefazodone, Protriptyline, Vilazodone, Vortioxetine CYP2C9
Glimepiride, Glipizide,  Glyburide, Tolbutamide, Chlorpropamide Nateglinide, Repaglinide CYP2C9
Odansetron, Dolasetron, Metoclopramide, Palonosetron CYP2D6
Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Carbatrol, Eslicarbazepine, Ethosuximide, Ezogabine, Felbamate, Fosphenytoin, Gabapentin, Lacosamide, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Oxcarbazepine, Perampanel, Pregabalin, Rufinamide, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Valproic Acid, Vigabatrin, Brivaracetam, Phenobarbital, Primidone, Zonisamide CYP2C9
Antihyperlipidemic Agents
Atorvastatin, Fluvastatin, Lovastatin, Pravastatin,  Pitavastatin, Simvastatin, Rosuvastatin SLCO1B1, CYP3A4, CYP2C9
Carvedilol, Metoprolol, Irbesartan, Nebivolol, Propanolol, Timolol, Labetalol CYP2D6, CYP2C9
Clopidogrel, Prasugrel, Ticagrelor, Warfarin, Vorapaxar, Apixaban, Dabigatran Etexilate, Edoxaban, Fondaparinux, Rivaroxaban CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1,
Aripiparazole, Haloperidol, Iloperidone, Paliperidone, Perphenazine, Pimozide, Risperidone,  Thioridazine, Asenapine, Brexpiprazole, Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine, Loxapine, Lurasidone, Pimavanserin, Quetiapine, Thiothixene, Trazodone, Trifluoperazine, Ziprasidone, Clozapine, Olanzapine, Tetrabenazine
Other Neurological Agents: Dextromethorphan/Quinidine, Flibanserin
Diazepam, Clobazam, Alprazolam, Clonazepam, Lorazepam, Oxazepam CYP2C19
Acid Related Disorders
Dexlansoprazole,  Esomeprazole, Lansoprazole, Omeprazole, Pantoprazole,  Rabeprazole CYP2C19
Cardiovascular Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists: Azilsartan, Candesartan, Eprosartan, Irbesartan, Losartan, Olmesartan, Telmisartan, Valsartan
Antianginal Agents: Ranolazine
Diuretics: Torsemide
Huntington Disease
Tetrabenazine CYP2D6
Tacrolimus CYP3A5
Antifungals: Voriconazole
Anti-HIV Agents: Atazanavir
Antimalarials: Proguanil
Antifungals: Voriconazole
Carisoprodol, Tizanidine, Cyclobenzaprine, Metaxalone, Methocarbamol CYP2C19, CYP1A2
Anti-HIV Agents: Atazanavir Methadone CYP2B6
Antimalarials: Proguanil  Codeine, Fentanyl, Hydrocodone, Morphine,  Oxycodone, Tramadol, Alfentanil, Buprenorphine, Dihydrocodeine, Hydromorphone, Levorphanol, Meperidine, Oxymorphone, Sufentanil, Tapentadol, Methadone  CYP2D6, OPRM1
Other  Bupropion, Naltrexone  COMT, OPRM1, ANKK1/DRD2
Other Analgesics  Celecoxib, Flurbiprofen, Piroxicam, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, Ketoprofen, Ketorolac, Meloxicam, Nabumetone, Naproxen, Sulindac  CYP2C9
Pain  Fibromyalgia Agents: Milnacipran  
Rheumatology Anti-Gout Agents: Allopurinal
Immunomodulators: Apremilast, Leflunomide, Tofacitinib
Urinary Incontinence Antispasmodics: Tolterodine, Darifenacin, Fesoterodine, Mirabegron, Oxybutynin, Solifenacin, Trospium
5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Dutasteride, Finasteride
Alpha Blockers: Alfuzosin, Doxazosin, Silodosin, Tamsulosin, Terazosin
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors for Erectile Dysfunction: Avanafil, Sildenafil, Tadalafil, Vardenafil

Sample Report

Our Pharmacogenomics report help physicians understand drugs and doses that offer the greatest chance of therapeutic success.

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